Cause of Gestational Diabetes:
- Hormones produced by the placenta induce an environment of stress producing an insulin resistant state in the mother (see insulin resistance under Type 2 Diabetes).
Gestational Diabetes Screening Test:
- drinking a 50-gram oral glucose solution followed by a 1-hour blood glucose test.
- If result is equal to or greater than 140 mg/dl, further testing required.
Diagnostic Test for Gestational Diabetes:
- drinking 100-gram oral glucose solution after an 8 hour fast
- blood sugar test at 1, 2, and 3 hours after
- positive diagnosis requires that any two of the four glucose values obtained during the test meet or exceed the following values:
- Fasting - 105 mg/dl
- 1-hour - 190 mg/dl
- 2-hour - 165 mg/dl
- 3-hour - 145 mg/dl
Treatment of Gestational Diabetes:
- Self Monitoring
- blood sugar
- baby's movements in utero
- Insulin may be needed
Goals of Gestational Diabetes Treatment:
- Maintain normal blood glucose/sugar levels
- Fasting ≤ 90 mg/dl
- 1-hour after meals ≤ 120 mg/dl
- Provide a nutritionally adequate diet for pregnancy