Type 1 Diabetes

Characteristics of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:

  • Happens in 5-10% of persons diagnosed with diabetes.
  • Mostly in children and adults up to 30 years of age (may occur at any age).
  • Requires insulin injections for survival.
  • Prone to Ketoacidosis (life threatening condition characterized by sweet fruity odor to the breath, dehydration, and coma).

Signs and Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes include:

  • Frequent urination (polyurea)
  • Excessive Thirst (polydipsia)
  • Excessive hunger (polyphasia)
  • Rapid weight loss

Causes of Type 1 Diabetes:

  • Partly genetic
  • Autoimmune process where body thinks the Beta cells in the pancreas (where insulin is produced) is the enemy and they self-destruct
  • Viral infection may be the trigger for the process to begin

Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes (preferably by a diabetes specialist called an Endocrinologist):

  • Insulin injections
  • Diet
  • Exercise
  • Self Blood Glucose Monitoring
  • Education

Type 1 Diabetes - Goals of Treatment:

Blood glucose control goals should be set by a team comprised of the physician, patient, family members, and other diabetes management team members. Goals should be individualized to fit patient characteristics and needs.

  • Prevent symptoms of high blood glucose/sugar (hyperglycemia)
  • Prevent ketosis
  • Maintain weight within a desirable range
  • Maintain normal growth rate in children and adolescents
  • Minimize low blood glucose/sugar (hypoglycemia)
  • prevent hospitalization
  • Prevent or postpone the development of retinopathy (eye disease), nephropathy (kidney disease), neuropathy (nerve damage), heart disease, and stroke
  • Before meals blood glucose/sugar = 80-120 mg/dL
  • Bedtime blood glucose/sugar = 100-140 mg/dL
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