Type 2 Diabetes

Characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:

  • Happens in 90 - 95% of persons diagnosed with diabetes
  • Mostly in adults after 30 years of age (may occur at any age)
  • Can go undetected for years
  • Not prone to Ketoacidosis (see section on Ketoacidosis)
  • Signs and Symptoms often not present
  • Is a progressive disease

Signs and Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes include:

  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Frequent yeast infections
  • Occasionally frequent urination and excessive thirst

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes:

  • Strong genetic link
  • Insulin resistance (more than enough insulin production; however, the insulin does not work properly at the cell wall)
  • Insulin resistance is caused by obesity and lack of exercise
  • Not enough insulin production

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment:

  • Diet and exercise lifestyle changes are a must and first
  • Self Blood Glucose Monitoring
  • Education
  • Add oral medication if diet and exercise is not successful
  • Add insulin when above not successful

Goals of Type 2 Diabetes Treatment:

Blood glucose control goals should be set by a team comprised of the physician, patient, family members, and Certified Diabetes Educators (RN, RD). Goals should be individualized to fit patient characteristics and needs.

  • To achieve near normal blood glucose/sugar control
  • To prevent or postpone the development of retinopathy (eye disease), nephropathy (kidney disease), neuropathy (nerve damage), heart disease, and stroke
  • Fasting blood glucose/sugar = 80-120 mg/dL
  • Bedtime blood glucose/sugar = 100-140 mg/dL
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